Advances in Science and Technology:


Unit 3 :

Advances in Science and Technology:

Vocabulary :

- pseudo = false, fake, not genuine.

- events = happenings.

- benefits = advantages.

- on your own = independently.

- fundamental : important.

-  headways : progress, strides.

Expressing purpose:



so as to + infinitive

She left home early so as to be on time for the interview

for + ……ing

Posters and brochures are used for interviewing people to study

to + infinitive

Souad goes jogging every morning to keep fit and healthy

so that + modal

He trains very hard so that he can be ready for the next Olympic Games

for + noun

Akram met Mr. Johnson for an interview

in order to + infinitive

Adults go to literacy classes in order to learn how to read and write

Other Structures to express purpose:

.Research is being done with the aim of developing a cure to bird flu- 

.The association is raising money with the objective of building a street children center- 

.He went to the clinic with the intention of doing a general check-up- 

.An investigation is carried out for the purpose of determining the cause of the accident-

Making and responding to complaints about behavior:

Complaining :

- I’ve been patient long enough, but…

- I just don’t know how to say it, but…

- I’m afraid I have to make a serious complaint.

- Sorry to bother you, but…

- Look, I’m sorry to trouble you, but…

- Sorry to say it, but you…….

- I’m not satisfied with the way you…

Rejecting a complaint:

-I’m afraid there isn’t much we can do about it.

-Well, I’m afraid there’s nothing we can do about it actually.


- I can’t tell you how sorry I am.

- I’m awfully sorry.

- I’m terribly sorry.

- Sorry to hear that.

- dear. I’m really sorry.

- I just don’t know what to say.

- I’m sorry. I didn’t realize.

- I do apologise. Sorry about that.

- I’m very sorry.

Refusing/Accepting Apologies:

- It’s not important.

- Don’t worry about it.

- I see no reason why I should.

- Never mind.

- It’s O.K.

Expressing Certainty and Uncertainty :

Expressing certainty:

Do you think that scientists will find a cure to cancer in the near future?



- definitely.

- certainly.

- of course

- I’m absolutely sure they will.

- I’m quite sure they will.

- I’m certain they will.

- I’m positive they will.

- definitely not.

- certainly not.

- absolutely not.

- I’m absolutely sure they won’t.

- I’m quite sure they won’t.

- I’m certain they won’t.

- I’m positive they won’t.


Expressing uncertainty:


I suppose but

- it could happen.

- it’s not possible.

- you never know of course.

- no one can say for certain.

- it’s possible.

- there might be.

- I have my doubts.

- it’s doubtful.

- it’s highly unlikely.

- it’s improbable.

- I’m not really sure.

- I doubt it.

Phrasal verbs :

- turn down (1) : refuse :   he turned down the new job because he didn’t want to move.

- turn down (2) : lower the volume : Please turn  down, I’m sleeping.

- put down : make someone feel stupid: Why did you have to put me down in front of everybody like that?

- look forward to : I'm looking forward to the holidays.

- bump up : increase : They bump up their prices in the summer months. 


Conditional type 3:



If + past perfect + would have

+ past participle

If the leaders had been wiser,

the war wouldn’t have brokenout.


- If Jamal hadn’t eaten a lot, he wouldn’t have had a stomach-ache.

- If he had slept early, he could have got up in the morning.

- He wouldn’t have missed several lessons if he had gone to school.

- If he had gone to school, he would have done the test.




I wish / wished / If only + past participle

My grandfather wishes he had had a cell

phone in his childhood.

 - I wish my father had bought me computer last year. I could be a programmer then.

- I wish I hadn’t eaten so much last night. I felt terrible then.

- Health authorities wish people got immunized.

- jamal wishes his satellite receiver hadn’t stopped working.

Expressions of concession and addition:

-  Although it was raining, we went out.

- In spite of the rain, we went out.

- In spite of the fact that it was raining, we went out.

- Along with being busy with her professional career, Rachida  is a good mother.

- His parents were illiterate. Consequently, they didn’t  send him to school when he was young.

- women need education as well as health care.

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